LOCAL JEWELLERY HERİTAGE
The jewellery heritage has been interlocked with life for thousands of years in Anatolia, the home to the first golden coin and the first golden piece of jewellery.
As has the case been for thousands of years, the jewellery heritage is transferred also today to future generations by way of reflection from the memory to hands with the master-apprentice relationship.
See Anatolian Jewellery Heritage
In terms of historical richness and handiwork techniques, one of the most important centres is Eskişehir. Cebe (a filigree technique) is the most striking technique of Eskişehir, a land of myths dating back to 4000 B.C.
Always associated with the county of Sivrihisar, cebe is formed with golden wires as a basis and the wires are woven on looms like carpets.
Another classic feature of the city is the ‘pear earrings’ produced with 12 pearls with a reference to Jesus and His 12 disciples.
Ankara-Beypazari has been a jewellery producer for queens and ladies from the Hittites to our modern day and the characteristic jewellery technique of this region is ‘pitpit’ (inclusion of small flower-like patterns).
Since the second half of the 20th Century, telkari, a technique frequently used in these areas, has been applied with pitpits resembling small flowers.
Although jewellery is an occupation transferred from father to son in the Anatolian land, a man’s hand can never touch anything during the hair-like braiding of such world-renowned jewellery as matted bracelets, collars and belts of the Trabzon area. Men only join the shaping process after the weaving and to undertake locking and welding work.
Trabzon matting is performed by tying knots on 22-carat gold or silver wires with needles. The seams on the back of the mat are joined together with locks called ‘caps’ ornamented with ‘engraving’.
In addition to matting, Trabzon also hosts beautiful examples of telkari and niello techniques.
Kazaz is distinguished with ball-formed ornaments produced with fine silver wires by using such tools as crocket needle, winding wheel and winding drum.
Wires are wrapped around a rod to create thin bands, which are later used to form a mat. Then, these bands are twisted in various ways to produce two- and three-dimensional balls in different sizes and shapes.
Oltu Stone (Jet), ,
With an influence of the Turkish-Islamic civilization on its techniques, the oltu stone is of great significance in terms of the development of the jewellery of Erzurum. The Oltu stone has been used in the making of objects of adornment in Erzurum since the 19th Century (For more information on the Oltu stone, see).
Inlaying, Wire Inlaying
Inlaying is a technique frequently used in Erzurum. In this technique, the patterns are created by opening holes or dents on metal works and using another metal to produce a colour contrast.
Wire inlaying is applied on the Oltu stone.
Kaşli Burma (Locked Woven Jewellery)
Kaşli Burma is a version of woven bracelets that is ornamented with such motifs as flowers or birds on the lock. This lock is known colloquially as the ‘eyebrow’ (kaş).
Rings, earrings and necklaces ornamented with coins in the shape of Mevlana’s cape constitute one of the most common models in Konya. Mevlana collar, specifically, is produced by weaving thick and thin wires together.
The centre of the art of telkari in Anatolia is the county of Midyat of Mardin. In the making of telkari, thickly drawn silver wires are cut as appropriate for the desired form, twisted and welded together. The main frame is filled and welded with thinner wires. If desired, the work is ornamented with small spheres, balls, etc.
Belts created by the attachment of silver plates together are generally presented with embossed plant motifs and geometric patterns. These belts are sometimes ornamented further with inlayed precious stones.
Today, prominent centres of telkari are Diyarbakir and Trabzon. Beypazari is striking with its more pronounced focus on jewellery.
The most beautiful examples of wickerwork, one of the rare art forms reaching our modern day, are found around Gaziantep, and Diyarbakır that earned its reputation in the Ottoman period.
In both areas, various techniques are employed from telkari to niello work. Furthermore, the area of Diyarbakir attracts due attention with very elegant necklaces produced with chains ornamented with floral motifs and hanging spheres.
Also applied on gold, this work is quite successfully performed in Trabzon. Bands woven in silver or gold in households are transformed into bracelets, belts, necklaces and earrings in the marketplace. The centre of the application of wickerwork as a household art is Akçaabat.
On the basis of the order, the master works with 950-carat silver or 22-carat golden wires. The tools used in the making are a type of awl-tweezers referred to among the public as çifte (double) and döveç (wooden mortar) made of boxwood to beat the woven wicker.
Woven bands are obtained by enveloping the top of the wires bent in a U-shape in the form of an open-base ellipsis. Wires placed side by side are wrapped and attached together in a diagonal system. This rigidly woven band is beaten with the döveç once the operation has been completed. Once beaten, the band loses its rigidity and reveals vertical lines formed by points between ‘arms’. The word ‘arm’ (kol) refers to lines in woven bands. With diagonal weaving, these woven lines produce the wicker pattern.
Trailed bracelets and necklaces are a classic in Şanlıurfa, where the history of jewellery dates back to Neolithic and Bronze ages.
Woven Jewellery in Maraş
In Maraş, the woven jewellery of Maraş, bracelets with stars and grapes and necklaces produced with an inspiration from Turkmen hair accessories bear the influences of Turkmen tribes.