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When the historical development of carpet weaving in Bergama is considered, all sources agree that the oldest known examples of this area’s products date back to the 16th and 17th Centuries. However, no definite information could be given as to the production centre of the rugs whose production is today attributed to Bergama. 

The material used in the rugs woven in and around Bergama is wool in general. The wool is obtained and span into yarns via traditional procedures.

In the area, yarns stretched vertically on the weaving loom are referred to as eriş, ariş or warp, while yarns tied transversally are called argeç or weft and knot yarns are known as ilme or carpet face.

In the weaving, two-fold and double warp yarns, single-fold and 2-, 3-, 4- or 5-row weft yarns and low-twist or two-fold and single-twist knot yarns. Weft yarns in the Kozak area are specifically red in colour. 

The double-knot technique (Turkish knot) is used in weaving.

In samples woven in recent years, the quality is observed with 26x36 per dm² and a pile height lower than 1 cm.

The public measures the quality according to the number of wires (number of warps) and siyirdim count. In the area, pairs of warp yarns are counted and each warp yarn is called wire, while a pair of wires is one siyirdim. In addition, the number of knots per line is also called siyirdim in the rugs woven in the area (1). 

While the colour red is dominant as the base colour in Bergama rugs, there are also a few examples with dark blue colouring. Thirteen different colours have been identified in Bergama rugs.




Gonca Karavar, Bergama Halılarının Tasarım Özellikleri Ve Yeni Halı Tasarımları, DEÜ Güzel Sanatlar Enstitüsü Sanatta Yeterlilik Tezi, İzmir 2007
Bekir Deniz, Kozak (Bergama) Yöresi Halıları, Arış, Y.1, S.2,1997

Osman Bayatlı, Bergama’da Dokumacılık, Türk Etnografya Dergisi, S.2, 1957

Nigar Özhan, Bergama’da Eski Ve Yeni Halıcılık, Türk Etnografya Dergisi, S.12, 1969
Fahrettin-Naciye Kayıpmaz-Mustafa Genç, Tarihten Günümüze Bergama Halıları, Bergama Belleten, S.10, 2001

(1) For quality measurement with siyirdim calculation, see
     Bekir Coşkun, Kula Halıları, Bilim Birlik Başarı, S.43, 1985

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