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Crown Rugs

Pazirik Rug is regarded as the archetype of the Anatolian Rug art and dated back to the 5th Century B.C. The examples of Pazirik Rug were first discovered in the tombs called Kurgan in 1949 on Altai Mountains of Central Asia, which is the fatherland of Turks. These rugs were woven solely with woollen material and via the Turkish Knot Technique known also as the Gördes Knot.  

The traditions of the Turkish Rug Art of Central Asia were sustained with the Seljuk rugs in Anatolia. The Anatolian Seljuks played a significant role in the development of knotted rug art. The Turkish-knot rugs of the period marked the beginning of a regular and constant development for the first time in the history of Turkish rugs. The knot technique of Anatolian Seljuks was based on a long and great tradition in the 13th Century and continued in this period with characteristic motifs specific to the times and later with various compositions in rugs of following centuries. 

The first activities of the Ottoman Rug Art were built upon the robust foundations developed by Seljuks. Rugs produced during the 14th and 15th Centuries demonstrate an attachment to the principles of Seljuk Rug Art in terms of technique and motifs.(1)

The infinity princaple observed in the composition of rugs was maintained as the basic principle of the Turkish Rug Art as a whole. Today, numerous Anatolian rugs, carpets and other flat-woven works demonstrate the motifs of Seljuk rugs. (2)

After the Seljuk Rugs, the second bright era of the Turkish Rug Art started with the rugs woven in and around the province of Uşak, presenting a richness of motifs in the 16th Century.

The production of the world-renowned Hereke rugs was initiated in 1844. 

Crown Rugs – Ottoman Empire

Due to the great differences between the rugs woven by the people for their daily use and needs and the rugs presented to the taste of the Palace, the Crown rugs have a specific place in the Turkish Rug Art in this period by reason of the use of a new technique and wholly naturalistic floral motifs (3).

For related subject, see... 

    Kapat
 

(1) For more information on the Turkish carpet art and it's historical progsess, See...
     İ.Öztürk, Dokumaya giriş/ Halı Düz Dokumalar ve Dokuma Kumaşların Üretim Teknikleri, İzmir 2007
     F.Tekçe,Pazırık Altaylarında bir Halının Öyküsü, levent Matbaacılık, Ankara 1993
     N.Diyarbekirli, Pazırık Halısı, Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları, İstanbul 1984
     N.Diyarbekirli, İlk Türk Halısı,I.Uluslarası T.Folklor Kongresi, Ankara, 1973
     Ş.Yetkin,Türk Halı Sanatı, İstanbul 1974
     Kazım Dirik, Türk Halıcılığı, İstanbul 1938H.Ö. Barışta, T.C Dönemi Halk Plastik Sanatları, Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ankara 2005
     N.Kırzıoğlu, Altaylar’dan Tunaboyu’na Türk Dünyasında Ortak Motifler,
     G.Öney, Anadolu Selçuklu ve Beylikler Dönemi Türk Halı Sanatı,BBBderg.Y10 S41
     O.Aslanapa-Y.Durul, Selçuklu Halıları, İstanbul 1973
     O.Aslanapa, Türk sanatı, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Halıları,
     O.Aslanapa, 17. yy'da Türk Halı Sanatının Gelişmesi, Erdem AKM Yayınları,S.28, Ankara 1999 
     O.Aslanapa, Türk Halı Sanatının Bin Yılı, Eren Yayıncılık, İstanbul 1987
     B.Deniz, Geçmişten Günümüze Halıcılık, Bilim Birlik Başarı Dergisi Y.10 S.40
     B.Deniz, Osmanlı Devri Anadolu-Türk Halıları, Bilim Birlik Başarı Y.10 S.42
     K.Erdmann, Der Turkische Teppich Des 15.Jahrhunderst / 15.yy Türk Halısı, İÜ Yayını, İstanbul 1960
     R. Karadağ- E.Dölen, Reexamination of Turkey red; Annali di Chimica, İtalya, 2007     
     İ.Öztürk, Halıcılık Örneğinde Yöresel El Dokumalarının Araştırılmasında Değerlendirme ölçütleri’ 
     Turizm Bakanlığı, Turkish Handwoven Carpets, Ankara 1988     
     B. Bottanald, The Revival Dyeing in TwoTraditional Weawing Areas of Anatolia Rug., Reviw, Vol.3 No.9, 1983
     H. Haack, Oriental Rugs and Illustrated Guide, London 1960
     T.T.Rice, Ancient Arts Of Central Asia, London, 1965
     E.D.Philips, The Royal Hords, Nomad Peobles of Steppes, London , 1965     
 
(2) For weaving technique details, See ...
      İ.Öztürk,Dokumaya giriş/Halı Düz Dokumalar ve Dokuma Kumaşların Üretim Teknikleri, 2007
      Macide Gönül, Eski Türk Halılarında Dokuma Tekniği ve Özellikleri, 2. Uluslararası El Sanatları Semp. Bildirileri, DEÜ, İzmir 1982

(3) For more information on crown carpets, See... 
     E.Kühnel-J.Bellinger,The Textile Museum, Cataloque Raisonne, Cairiene Rugs and Others   Technically Related 15 th Century 17 th Century, Washington 1957
     K.Erdmann,Neure Untersuchungen Zur Frage Der Kairener Teppiche, Ars Orientalis IV 1961
     Ş.Yetkin,Osmanlı Saray Halılarında Yeni Örnekler, Sanat Tarihi Yıllığı VII, 1976

For more information on the silk rugs, See...
     T.Altınbaş, Doğal İpekten El Dokusu Halı Yapımı ve İhraç Edilen İpek Halıların Teknik Özellikleri ile Üretim Koşulları Üzerinde Araştırmalar,Ankara 1979

 
     
 
 
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