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Rugs

Rugs are napless flat woven rugs woven with a double yarn system (weft, warp). Rugs are the most famous products one among napless flat woven rugs except the knotted carpet.

Warp is a weaving type where yarns transect each other with transverse weft and warps are completely covered by wefts.

Warps go until the border of a different colourful motif by passing alternately from the top and the bottom and return from that point. So, the same colourful wefts compose the motifs by coming and going in their own pattern spaces.

In rug weavings, to identify the differences, according to the denominations registered in the resources, there are 8 different appellations in order to explain the subject better to non-local researchers.

These are buttoned rugs,
unbuttoned rugs,
rugs with oblique wefts,
rugs made by compressing additional wefts between normal wefts,
rugs with buttonholes destroyed by double clamping,
rugs with buttonholes destroyed by wefts coming back from the same warp,
rugs with lapping contour,
rugs with oblique weft contour.

When looked at the History of rugs, it is observed that konar-göçer (Turkish nomads) people used them only to cater their needs by weaving them as basic rug (flooring) material.

In Anatolia, the rug is more valuable than the carpet. In home exhibition, the carpet is used to cover the places left blank of the rug.

Rugs, except for flooring, are used also as carpetbags, couch blankets, seccade (prayer rug), tablecloths, cradles, parzum, pillows, squab press blankets, cedar blankets, door curtains and sacks.

Patterns are usually geometric , since they provide convenience for weaving. The yarn used in the rug is usually of wool or cotton. The products are made by bringing the pieces side by side and combining them or in only one piece depending upon the width of loom woven.

Besides the features of the current age, the motifs on the rugs (1) show an alteration according to the weaving person’s hopes, expectations, the culture of the community, and its traditions.

They are titled according to the place (Eşme, Karasu, Emirdağ, etc.), tribe (Avşar, Berihan, and Kirkitli etc.), motif (yollu, çubuklu, aynalı, bindallı etc.) and the weaving person or the family.

Anatolian rugs are divided into 4 classes, namely, Turkmen, Yoruc, Kurd and Turk rugs according to the places where they were woven, the colour of the vegetable dye that was used and the motifs that were mostly used.

According to this classification, the motifs used on the rug are divided into 5 groups.

1 -  Animal motifs; the most used one is the bird but also dragon and insect motifs are used.

2 -  Vegetal motifs; Tree, leaf, flower, and fruit motifs are used.

3 -  Geometric motifs; it is the most preferable motif kind because of the weaving easiness. The most seen shapes are triangle, quad, rectangle and rhombus.

4 -  Mixed motifs; Medallion, badge, hook, column writing, letter, vase etc. are used.

5 -  Symbolic motifs; they are the motifs which symbolize the power of nature and the feelings and thoughts of the weaver. The bird, the hand, the tree of life, the comb, the ewer, the lamp etc. fall into this group.

The motifs on the rug reflect the traditions and culture of that place. 

The meanings of some motifs used in Anatolia;

Hand on the Waist: It is the symbol of motherhood and fertility terms.

Cleat; It is the symbol of abundance, luck, fate, happiness, cheer, long life, bravery and power.

Hook; It is the symbol of getting the bad looks away by its featheredges.

Human; It is the symbol of man, woman and fertility.

Hair Ribbon; It is used to show the young girls’ will to marry.

Earring; It is the explanation of a young girl, who put earrings to her weaving, to her family that she wants to marry.

Hand; It is used for to be protected against evil eyes.

Water; It is a motif that was used long time ago.

Eye; It is used as a protective against affecting by evil eye.

Tree of Life; It symbolizes the eternity of the generation.

Bird; It is the motif that symbolizes the luck and bad luck.

The centres where rug weaving is quiet widespread are Sivas, Hakkari, mountainous Yund region, Ayvacık (Çanakkale) region, Selçuk (İzmir) and its environment, Kırşehir, Emirdağ and its environment,  Eşme, Ordu, Antalya, Karatepe, Gaziantep, Tarsus, Bekdik and Malatya.

In Obruk, Emirdağ, Eşme, Sivas, Van and Hakkari samples, diversifications, with also decorations with plants and objects, sometimes step in with compositions formed with geometric shapes are seen.

Karapınar, Bardız rugs attract attention with plant decorations aon seccade (prayer rug) types.

The eaves of Van weavings (the ones at cradle, table, sack and parzum) and especially the compositions on squabs get attention.

In Kayseri, Develi, Şırhlı, a different approach adorned with lineal style, called ‘soy şak” in that region is observed (2).

For more information on the rug, local rugs and patteries see...

 

    Kapat
 

(1) About patteries and names
      B.Karamağaralı, Türk Halı Sanatındaki Motiflerin Yorumu Üzerine, Arış, Y.1,S.3,1997
     G.Erbek,
Anadolu Motifleri Sergisi, Sergi Kataloğu, İzmir    
     İ.Birol-Ç.Derman,
Türk Tezyini Sanatlarında Motifler/Motifs İn Turkish Decorative Arts,  Kubbealtı Kültür Ve Sanat Vakfı Yayını İstanbul 1991
     M.Önder,
Anadolu'da Kilimler'de Konuşur, Kültür ve Sanat dergisi, T.İş Bankası Yayını,Y.3, S.11, 1991
     N.Görgünay,
Altaylar'dan Tuna Boyu'na Türk Dünyasında Ortak Motifler, Türksoy Yayınları, Ankara 1995
     S.Babaoğlu,
Türk Kültürünün Işığında Halı-Kilim-Cicimlerdeki İmler, IV.Uluslararasıtürk Halk Kültürü Kongresi, Ankara 1992
     Y.Durul,
Yörük Kilimleri Niğde Yöresi, İstanbul 1977
     Y.Durul, Anadolu Kilimlerinden Örnekler,İstanbul,1985
     Y.Durul, Türk Kilim Motifleri, Ankara 1987

     İsmail Öztürk ‘Dokumaya giriş/ Halı Düz Dokumalar ve Dokuma Kumaşların Üretim Teknikleri’ , İzmir 2007
     İsmail Öztürk, ‘
Halıcılık Örneğinde Yöresel El Dokumalarının Araştırılmasında Değerlendirme ölçütleri’
     Bekir Deniz,
Osmanlı Dönemi Düz Dokuma Yaygıları, Osmanlı Kültür ve Sanat, Ankara 1999
     B.Acar,
Kilim Ve Düz Dokuma Yaygılar, İstanbul 1975
     M.Gönül, Türk Halı ve Kilimlerinin Teknik Hususiyetleri, Türk Etnografya Dergisi, S.2 1957
    
N.Özgül, El Sanatları Yönünden Halı Kilimde iplik ve Boya, DEÜ GSF Yayını, İzmir 1984Ş
     Öznur Aydın, Günümüz Türk Kilimciliği, DEÜ GSF Dergisi,  S.8-9, 1994
     Kenan Özbel,
Anadolu kilimleri, El Sanatları Klavuz Kitaplar,9, Halk Evleri Yayını
     H.Ö. Barışta,‘
T.C Dönemi Halk Plastik Sanatları’, Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ankara 2005
     F.Kayıpmaz-N.Kayıpmaz,
Geçmişten Günümüze Anadolu Kilimleri, Standart, Ekonomik Ve Teknik Dergi, Y.35,S.409, 1996
     Ş.Yetkin,
Zwei Turkish Kilims, Beitrage Zur Kunstgeschichte,Asiens, İstanbul 1963
     Ş.Yetkin,
İstanbul’da Hekimoğlu Alipaşa Camii’nden Hayvan Figürlü bir Türk Kilimi, Vakıflar Dergisi, S.IX Ankara 1971 


(2) For more information on the local rugs
     Ayşen Akdoğan,
Doğu Yöresi Kilimleri, Sanat Dünyamız,S.35 İstanbul 1986
     A.Topbaş,
Afyon Karahisar ve Yöresi Kilimleri, Kültür ve Sanat dergisi, S.21, 1994
     A.Soysaldı
, Düden Köyü Cami Yanışlı Kilimleri, Kayseri 1996
     Bekir Deniz,
Yöresel Özellikleriyle Yozgat Kilimleri, Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi Dergisi, S.5, İzmir 1990
     Bekir Deniz,
Yuntdağ Yöresi Düz Dokuma Yaygıları, Kültür Bakanlığı, Ankara 1992
     Bekir Deniz,
Ayvacık(Çanakkale) Yöresi Düz Dokuma Yaygıları (Kilim, Cicim, Zili), Ankara 1998 B.Acar, Kilim ve düz Dokuma Yaygılar, İstanbul 1975
     Bekir Deniz,
Karadeniz Bölgesinde İlginç Bir Dokuma Çeşidi, Dasdar, Sanat Tarihi Dergisi, S.I, İzmir 1982
     Bekir Deniz, 
Yöre Özellikleriyle Yozgat Kilimleri, Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi dergisi, EÜ Ed. Fak Yayını,İzmir, 1990
     B. Deniz-H.Ürer,
Selçuk (İzmir) Civarında Yaşayan Tekeli Yörüklerinde Halı ve Düz Dokuma Yaygılar, Erdem, C.10, Ankara 1999
     Emin Kuzucular,
Şarkışla'da Kilim ve Kilimcilik, Sivas Folkloru, S.48,Sivas 1977
     F.Kayıpmaz,
İsparta Ve Çevresi Yörük Kilimleri,Türkiyemiz, Akbank Yay. Y.23,S.69, 1993
     G.Parlar,
Emirdağ Kilimlerinde Renk, Motif ve Kompozisyon Özellikleri, Kültür ve Sanat Dergisi, S.21, 1994
     İ.Öztürk-Ö.Aydın,
Karatepe Kilimciliği, Kültür Ve Sanat Dergisi, T.İş Bankası Yayını, Y.4, S.13,1992
     
K.Şenol, Bardız’da Kilimcilik, Türk Folklor Araştırmaları, S.6,1960
    
Musa Seyirci, Sandıklı-Arızlı Köyünde Dokunan Hayat Ağaçlı Kilimler, Kültür ve Sanat,S.30, Ankara 1996
     M.Z.Kuşoğlu,
Antep Kilimleri, İlgi, Y.25, S.64, 1991
     M.Seyirci,
Bahşiş Yörükleri Ve Dokumaları, Kültür Ve Sanat Dergisi, T.İş Bankası Yayını, S.33,1997
     N.Görgünay Kırzıoğlu,
Eşme Kilimleri, AKM Yayınları, Ankara 1994
     
N.Say, Niğde Bor İlçesi Bekdik Kilimleri, 1999  
    N.Demir-M.Yerli,
Ordu Yöresi Çepni Kilimleri, Erdem, AKM Yayını Halı Özel Sayısı, C.10, S. 28, Ankara 1999          Recai Karahan, Kırşehir Kilimlerinin Dünü Bugünü, Türkiye'de El Sanatları Geleneği ve Çağdaş Sanatlar İçindeki Yeri Sempozyum Bildirileri, Ankara 1997
    S.Bayraktaroğlu, Eskişehir ve Çevresi Halı Kilim ve Düz Dokuma Yaygıları, Vakıflar Dergisi, S.21, 1990
  
  S.Bayraktaroğlu, Anadolu'dan Balkanlar'a Uzanan bir Dokuma Sanatı, Şarköy Kilimleri, T.İş Bankası, Kültür ve Sanat Dergisi,S.37, 1998   
    T.Onuk-F.Akpınarlı,
Güneydoğu Anadolu Karakeçili Türkmen Kilimleri, Kayseri 1996
    Z.Lekesiz-S.Tombak,
Bardız Kilimleri, Halk Bilim, C.5, 1978

    Öznur Aydın,İzmir Bornova Çamiçi ve Eğridere Köylerindeki Cami ve Evlerde Bulunan Zili, Sumak Kontürlü Düz Dokuma Kilimler, Standart Dergisi, Y.34, S.398, 1995
 

Photo:Neriman Görgünay,Türk Dünyası'nda Ortak Motifler, Ankara 1995 

 
     
 
 
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