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WOOD ENGRAVING / Relief

Carving is a technique which is performed by engraving the wood with various wood chisels to a main floor or to the inside from the floor.  For its historical development see Turkish wood arts.

1 - SURFACE ENGRAVING

    1.1 - Low Surface Carving

It comprises applications the depth of which doesn’t exceed 3-4 mm from exterior surface. 

    1.2 - High Surface Carving

It is a deeper and more mobilized style of low surface works. The motifs engraved are more vivid. The most characteristic example of this is seen in the 19th Century gothic style.

   
      1.2.1- Deep Carving on Flat Surface

While the wood surface stays same, the motifs are made clear with deep engraving applied from the surface.
Malatya Ulu Mosque mimbar and Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli Tomb Door are two of its examples. (See, mimbar)
     

   
      1.2.2- Deep Carving on Round Surface

The motifs are engraved in such a way as to create a rugged surface. In some examples, embosses are so high, that they give the impression of a hemstitch workmanship.
Siirt Ulu Mosque mimbar wriitings, Ankara Kızılbey Mosque door and Kaykavus Rahle in İstanbul Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts are some of the best examples. 
 

   
      1.2.3- Double Deck Relief Technique

This technique is used together with the deep engraving technique on flat and round surfaces. It is used in writings and epigraphs.
Ankara Alaaddin Mosque is its most beautiful example. 
   

          1.2.4- Oblique-Cut Technique
 
 In this technique, the surfaces with motifs go down to the deep surfaces intersecting each other.
The surface becomes almost invisible. Its examples are from the 12th Century Seljuk art 
Malatya Ulu Mosque mimbar in Ethnography Museum of Ankara is its most beautiful example. 

2 - CAGE TECHNIQUE

    2.1 - Plain Cage Technique

No other trimming material is added between the built-up cages.
Its examples are seen in mimbar copses in Ankara Kızılbey, Aslanhane (Ahi Şerafettin) Mosque , Ankara Ahi Elvan Mosque and Beyşehir Eşrefoğlu Mosque mimbar, Birgi Ulu Mosque. (See, mimbar)

    2.2- Packed Gap Cage Technique

In this group of cage workmanship, crescents and polygons with motifs inside fill the gaps between wood beams and the cages gain a richer appearance.
Its examples are seen in Ankara Alaaddin Mosque, Divriği Ulu Mosque , Çorum Ulu Mosque mimbar copses. 

3 - CUT ENGRAVINGS

It is a process where the trimming drawn on a part with a certain thickness is released by using various saws. Cage sides are used in making decorated frame surfaces and as covers for the sound hole of the lute’s wooden body. 

4 - NATURAL SHAPE ENGRAVING

It is the most difficult wood engraving technique. The practitioner must know the anatomy, because it is a  form of sculpture engraving. 

Today, Kahramanmaraş is famous for engraving works. Here, rahle (Quran reading table), jewel boxes and chests are being made. A deep engraving which gives an embossed impression requires the use of walnut tree material with a waiting range of two months to five years and flat, round and hooked stylets and emery with different edge shapes and thickness are used with. 

Urfa, Mardin Midyat and İnegöl are the centres which attract attention to engraving works. Besides engraving, Mardin-Midyat examples show differences with the application of openwork (hemstitch). 



see... 
 


    Kapat
 

For More İnformation on Wood Engraving technique, see
     
M.Asarcıklı-H.Keskin, Ahşap Süsleme Teknikleri, Gazi k.evi, Ankara 2002
      M.Ülker, Geleneksel Türk Sanatında Oyma Eserler, Türkiyemiz Dergisi,S.73,1994
     Gönül Öney,Anadolu Selçuklu ve Beylikler Devri Ahşap Teknikleri, Sanat Tarihi Yıllığı III,1969
     S.Mülayim,  Anadolu Türk Mimarisinde Geometrik Süslemeler (Selçuklu Çağı) Kültür Bakanlığı:503, Ankara 1982
     B.Ögel, Selçuklu Devri Anadolu Ağaç İşçiliği Hakkında Notlar, Yıllık Araştırmalar Dergisi I,1956
     S.Ögel, Anadolu Ağaç Oymacılığında Mail Kesim, sanat Tarihi Yıllığı I,1964
     Cevat Çulpan, Türk-İslam Tahta Oymacılık San'atından RAHLELER, Milli Eğitim Basımevi, 1968

For more information on samples, see
     S.Ögel, Ortaçağ Çevresinde Anadolu Selçuklu Sanatı, T.T.K yayını 19.seri,Ankara 1972
    Gönül Öney, Anadolu Selçuklu Mimarisinde Süsleme ve El Sanatları, İş Bankası Kültür Yayını:185,Ankara 1978
    S.Mülayim,Anadolu Türk Mimarisinde Geometrik Süslemeler (Selçuklu Çağı), Kültür Bakanlığı:503, Ankara 1982
    Gönül Öney, Ankara’da Türk Devri Yapıları, D.T.C.F.yayınları 209, Ankara 1971
    Orhan Aslanapa, Minber, İslam Ansiklopedisi,C.VIII     
    E.Yücel, Selçuklu Ağaç İşçiliği,Sanat Dünyamız, S.4, İstanbul 1975
    M.Z.Oral, Anadolu’da Sanat Değeri Olan Ahşap Minberler, Kitabeleri ve Tarihçeleri, Vakıflar Dergisi V, 1962
    Y.Önge-İ.Ateş-S.Bayram, Divriği Ulu Camisi ve Darüşşifası, Vakıflar Gn.Md.lüğü,Ank.1978

 
     
 
 
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