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HESAP WORKS

Embroidery applied with this technique has been used on such objects as girth (with both surfaces used), towel, bath set, cover and napkin (peşkir).  

Fabrics designated for Hesap works must be of sufficient thinness to distinguish weft and warp yarns in the form of bezayağı weaving (warps and wefts looped and tightened equally).

Linen, cotton, woollen and silken fabrics woven by hand in a regular and loose manner are preferred for this embroidery and purl and silver wire (wire purl) metal threads are utilized in addition to silken, cotton, woollen, mat and softly twisted yarns.
 

Motifs embroidered as Hesap work are generally accentuated by frames with silver wire, purl or dark-coloured yarns. 

Some of the techniques used in Hesap work are given below. Except for mürver (elderberry) and tel kirma (broken-wire embroidery), all of these techniques result in a fabric embroidered in exactly the same manner on both sides.

-  Plain Hesap Work; This is the simplest technique of embroidery, also referred to as plain needle. 

-  Diagonal Hesap Work:  This closely resembles the plain needle technique.

-  Muşabak: This technique provides for a hole in the middle of the embroidery. In such embroidery techniques as muşabak and mürver, the niches on the surface of the fabric are obtained by collecting, and not pulling, the yarns.

-  Mürver: This is a caged type of embroidery like muşabak and based on the counting principle.  

-  Pesent: This is the most commonly used technique in Turkish embroidery, applied by counting the number of weft and warp yarns. In this technique, yarns of different colours or twisted yarns are used.  

- Susma: By leaving a wire in the middle, patterns with only one yarn line between yarns are created in this technique. 

- Kesme: This is a technique where a certain amount of wefts and warps of the fabric are pulled off. This technique is more applied to borders. 

- Civankaşi: This technique is used to fill in patterns or create bordering veins and make patterns in Antep works. The embroidery is applied with suitable colours, shades of one colour or purl.  

- Broken-Wire Embroidery (Bartın Work): This embroidery technique is different from others in terms of technique and material. The fabric is stretched on a hoop. The name of the technique comes from the manner in which the wire is broken without using any scissors. Processed mostly with golden and silver wires, this technique is also referred to as ‘Bartin work’. Copper wire was also utilized in the 16th and 17th Centuries. A flattened silver needle with a special cap is used for the process. 



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    Kapat
 

Source: Oya Sipahioğlu, Tire Müzesinde Bulunan İşlemelerin Teknik ve Sanatsal Açıdan İncelenmesi ve Yeni Tasarımlar, DEÜ Sosyal Bilimler Ens. Sanatta Yeterlilik Tezi, İzmir, 1997

     Ayten Sürür, Türk işleme Sanatı, Akbank 1976
     Ayten Sürür, Türk işlemelerinde Bölge Özellikleri,Türkiyemiz, Y.5, S.14, 1971

     Burton Berry, Old Turkish Towels, 1938

     Celal Arseven, Sanat Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul 1950

     Emin Cenkmen, Osmanlı Sarayı ve Kıyafetleri, İstanbul, 1943

     G.Von Palotay, Turkish Embroideries, London 1954

     H.Züber, Türk Süsleme Sanatları, T.İş Bankası, Ankara 1971

     Kenan Özbel, Eski El İşlemeleri, El Sanatları 4, Ankara 1949

     M.Celal Lampe, Türk İşlemeleri, İstanbul 1939

     Macide Gönül, Topkapı Sarayı Kolleksiyonundan Bazı Türk İşlemeleri, İstanbul 1969

     Macide Gönül, Türk El İşleri Sanatı, (16-19.yy), Ankara , 1973

     Nezahat Turkan, Gümüş Isıltılı Telkırma / Silver Strip Embroidery, Skylife, Eylül 2003
     Nurhayat Berker, İşlemeler, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 1981

     Nurhayat Berker-Yusuf Durul, Türk İşlemelerinden Örnekler, Ak Yayınları, 1971

     Örcün Barışta, Osmanlı İmparatorluk Dönemi Türk İşlemeleri, Osmanlı Kültür ve Sanat, Ankara 1999

     Örcün Barışta, Türk İşleme Sanatı Tarihi,

     Örcün Barışta, Özel Müzelerimiz ve Kolleksiyonlarımız II, Sanat Dünyamız 1984

     Örcün Barışta, Türk İşlemelerinde Teknikler, Ankara 1978

     Pauline Johlnstone,Turkish Embroidery, Victoria Albert Museum 1985

     Selma Delibaş, Türk İşlemeleri, Sanat, S.7, 1982

     Semiha Başbuğ, Türk işlemeleri, İstanbul, 1964

     Sevim Fenercioğlu, Türk İşlemelerinde Motifler, Ankara

     Ulla Ther, 16-20 yy. Gezi Edebiyatında Yerli Türk İşlemeleri, Türkiyemiz, Y.24, S.72,1994
     Ulla Ther, Türk İşlemeleri, Bremen, 1993

 
     
 
 
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