homepage categories ideglossary museum guide columns presentations our purpose contact us
› Categories  



ILLUMINATION - TEZHİP

Illumination refers to the decoration of manuscripts with dyes and gold. All types of decorations in manuscripts and writing albums called murakka, sultan’s decrees (ferman) and plates of calligraphy are called illumination (tezhip).

The term means ‘gilding’ in Arabic. However, illumination makes use of glued water mixtures with madders, coloured earth dyes, dust of some colourful stones, as well as gold.

Illumination produced only with gold is called halkar. Halkar is created by spreading a mixture of jammed golden gelatine and water with a brush.

The maker of illumination is known as müzehhip and the illuminated work as müzehhep.

Illumination is one of our traditional art forms created by collective efforts at the Palace’s Nakkaşhane. Once writing of the book was completed by the calligrapher, cetvelkeş would draw a scale around the margins with black ink or red dye called sürh and masters and apprentices would place the pattern prepared on paper by the müzehhip in a pattern mould onto the base to be illuminated and transfer this to the actual paper by steering through coal dust. Then, one or more müzehhip would complete the dyeing process.

In the art of illumination, the main motifs used were mostly rumi in the form of stylized wing- and beak-like patterns, geometric shapes such as triangles, hexagons and octagons, münhani observed more in Seljuks and created by overlapping curved lines, hatayi with stylized floral motifs, clouds, sazyolu (reed track) with auxiliary motifs in the form of awls. Awls are the outward extending, pointy and arrow-like part of the decoration and provide a balance by relieving the transition of the eye from the decorations to the blank border.
In book decorations, the harmony and proportions of motifs are of great importance.

Historical development

In the Seljuks period, illuminations are dominated by interwoven geometric shapes as was the case in stone, wood and architecture.
The main colours used were golden, dark blue, white and reddish brown.
Awls were either nonexistent or in the form of thin, widely spaced lines. 

In the period of beyliks, the dominant colours were red, green, dark blue and golden. The works resemble Seljuk illumination and bear the first traces of the early Ottoman illumination. 

The richness of samples in the libraries show that numerous works were prepared and illuminated during the reign of Fatih Sultan Mehmet under the supervision of the arch-artist Baba Nakkaş (Father Naqqash) of the palace’s nakkaşhane in the XI Century.
The distinguishing features of this period are simplicity, tones of light blue and the strong balance of gild and dyes. Apart from blue and golden, dark blue, reddish brown, white, green and black were the most frequently used colours. 

The XVI Century represents the peak of illumination. The richness of motifs, colours and compositions, the perfection of technique, diversity and finesse of patterns and the abundant but harmonious use of golden on dark blue base are the predominant features of illumination in this period.
The head müzehhip of the palace during the reign of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Karamemi and the head muralist (nakkaş) of the second half of the XVI Century, Nakkaş Osman made their mark in this period’s illumination.

Towards the end of XVII Century, golden is observed to be used more abundantly. Different forms were sought after in decorations. 

Decorations with large floral and complex motifs were used in XVIII Century indicating the beginning of change in classic illumination with the entrance of baroque rococo styles into illumination and the dominance of natural branches and leaves, saz yolu forms and excessive ornaments and curves. 

The art of illumination showed a decline in the XIX Century and survived with the efforts of only a few artists. Today, Departments of Traditional Arts of Faculties of Fine Arts and private courts put forth efforts to keep this art form alive. Since no more manuscripts are written, illumination is not performed in the form of book decorations.
Formerly aimed at accenting and presenting the writing (calligraphy), the art of illumination is performed now more at the edges of Hilye and plates and as individual Plate (Levha)

Areas of Embellisshments in Manuscripts (see)


For more information on illumination, patterns, motifs, nakkaşhane and muralists ***see*** 

    Kapat
 

   M.Esiner Özen, Türk Tezhip Sanatı, Turkish Art Of Illumination, Gözen Yayınevi, İstanbul 2003
   Süheyl Ünver, Anadolu Selçuklu Kitap Süsleri ve Resimleri, Atatürk Konferansları 1971-72 C.5,Ankara 1975
     İsmet Binark,Türk Kitapçılık Tarihinde Tezhip Sanatı, Türk Kütüphaneciler Dern. Bülteni C.XIII, S.3-4, Ankara 1964 
    Rıfkı Meriç, Türk Nakış Sanatı Tarihi Araştırmaları, Ankara 1954
   Gülbün Mesara, Türk Tezhip ve Minyatür Sanatı, Sandoz Bülteni,1987 S.25 
   Martin Lings, The Quranic Art of Calligraphy and Ullimination, England, 1976  

For more information on the patterns and motifs , see

     A.Akar-C.Keskiner, Türk Süsleme Sanatlarında Desen ve Motifler, Güzel Sanatlat Matbaası,İstanbul 1978
     Cahide Keskiner, Turkish Motifs, İstanbul1991
   İnci Birol-Çiçek Derman, Türk Tezyini sanatlarında Motifler, İstanbul 1995
   Gülbün Mesara, Tezyini Noktalar,Antika, S.33 İstanbul
   Hatice Aksu, Türk Tezhip Sanatının Süsleme Unsurları, Osmanlı 11, Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, Ankara 1999
   Uğur Derman, Türk Sanatında Murakkalar, İlgi, S.32, İstanbul 1981
   Y.Özcan, Türk Kitap Sanatında Şemse Motifi, Kültür Bakanlığı 1124,Ankara 1990
   Yıldız Demiriz, İslam Sanatında Geometrik Süsleme, İstanbul 2000
  Yıldız Demiriz, Osmanlı Kitap Sanatında Naturalist Çiçekler, İstanbul 1986
   Cahide Keskiner, Türk Süsleme Sanatlarında Stilize Çiçekler,Hatai, Ankara 2000
   Ş.aksoy, Kitap Süslemelerinde Türk Barok Rokoko Uslubu, Sanat 6, 1977
   Banu Mahir, Osmanlı Sanatında Saz Uslubundan anlaşılan, Topkapı Sarayı Yıllığı, S.2 İstanbul 1987
     B.Mahir, Kanuni Döneminde Yaratılmış Yaygın Bezeme Uslubu; Saz Yolu, Türkiyemiz 54, 1998
      M.Esiner Özen, Tezhipte Tığ, Antika.S.10,İstanbul 1986
    Selçuk Mülayım, Rumi Motif, Thema Laorusse, C.6, İstanbul 1983
     Selçuk Mülayım, Rumi Motifin Zoomorfik Kökeni, Uluslar arası Osmanlı Öncesi Türk Kültürü Kongresi Bildirileri, Ankara 1989

For more information on the nakkaşhane and muralists, see

 
   Gürçağlar, Nakkaşhane ve Nakkaş Kavramı, Mozaik 8, İstanbul 1996
    Haydar Yağmurlu, Topkapı Sarayı Kütüphanesinde İmzalı Eserleri Bulunan Tezhip Ustaları, Türk Etnoğrafya Derg., S.13,İst 1973
    Banu Mahir, II.Beyazıt Dönemi Nakkaşhanesinin Osmanlı Tezhip Sanatına Katkıları, Türkiyemiz, S.60, İstanbul 1990
   Süheyl Ünver, Fatih Devri Saray Nakışhanesi ve Baba Nakkaş Çalışmaları, İstanbul 1958
   Süheyl Ünver, Baba Nakkaş,Fatih ve İstanbul Dergisi, C.2,S.72-12,1954  
   Gülbün Mesara-Şeyda Can, Müzehhip Karamemi, Art dekor, Nisan 1987,S.49  
    M.Rogers, Kara Mehmet Çelebi (Kara Memi) and the Role of the Ser-nakkaşan, Soliman le Magnifique et son Temps. Paris 1992
    Süheyl Ünver, Müzehhip Karamemi,İstanbul 1951
   Gülnur Duran, 18.Yüzyıl Müzehhip, Çiçek Ressamı ve Lake Üstadı Ali Üsküdari, Osmanlı 11, Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, Ankara 1999
   Süheyl Ünver, Müzehhip ve Çiçek Ressamı Üsküdarlı Ali, İstanbul 1954
   F.Bodur, Osmanlı lake Sanatı ve XV.Yüzyıl Ustadı Ali Üsküdari, Türkiyemiz , S:47,1985
   M.Esiner Özen, Süleymaniye Kütüphanesindeki Padişah Divanlarından Muradi Divanı, Antik ve Dekor, İstanbul 1998,S.44

 
     
 
 
› Related products
Baroque Rococo
Illumination - Tezhip
Bouquet
Illumination - Tezhip
Ehl-i Beyt
Illumination - Tezhip
El Muiz
Illumination - Tezhip
Various Periods
Illumination - Tezhip
Maşallah
Illumination - Tezhip
Page of Zahriye
Illumination - Tezhip

› Did you know them?
Birsen Malkoç
Copyright by © 2019 idesanat.com
Important Information
1. If you share our content in another web site, please denote the sources. Thanks for your interest.
2. If you think that there is something which is against the copyrights and laws, please inform us.