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CARPET ART OF ANATOLIA
   

Even though the origins of Anatolian carpet weaving are not definitely known, carpet weaving has been one of the most important pursuits of the public since ancient times. Appearing specifically as an extension of the nomadic culture, carpet weaving also maintained its existence among a people that adopted a sedentary lifestyle after years of unsettled living.

As a result of scientific studies conducted in the field of carpet weaving, rugs woven in different areas were distinguished and named according to their place of weaving on the basis of such distinct features as motifs, colours, compositions and raw materials. No exact and distinct definition could yet be made as to the origins and timeline of these distinct features.

Rugs are a part of our traditional culture as documents transferring various data regarding their periods to coming generations and information on the most important distinctive features of rugs, namely raw materials, colours and patterns, are required to define their specifications.

Historical Development (1)

Regarded as the pioneer of the Turkish Anatolian Carpet Art, the Pazirik Rug dates back to the 5th Century B.C.

Pazirik rug was discovered in 1949 in tombs called Kurgan on the Middle Eastern Altai Mountains, the fatherland of Turks. This rug was woven wholly with woollen material and the Turkish knot technique, also known as the Gördes knot.

The traditions of the Turkish Middle Eastern Carpet Art were continued with Seljuk carpets in Anatolia. Anatolian Seljuks contributed greatly to the development of knotsted carpet art.

Turkish knotted carpets of the time became the starting point of a regular and continuous pattern of development for the first time in the history of knotted carpets. The knot technique of the Seljuks was predicated upon a long and great tradition and the characteristics motifs observed in this period were also used in various compositions in the rugs of the following century. 

The first activities of the Ottoman in carpet art were built on the firm footing developed by the Seljuks. During the 14th and 15th Centuries, carpet weaving abode by the principles of the Seljuk Carpet Art in terms of both technique and motifs.

The infinity of princaple in the rugs’ composition has subsisted as the main principle of the Turkish Carpet Art as a whole.

After the Seljuk rugs, the second shining era of the Turkish Carpet Art started with the rugs woven with a great richness in motifs in and around Usak (Uşak Rugs). The production of the world-renowned Hereke Rugs was initiated in 1844.

Period of the Ottoman Empire – Palace Rugs

Due to the great differences between the rugs woven by the public for their own daily needs and the rugs presented to the Palace’s taste, palace rugs have a different place in the Turkish carpet art of this period as a group woven with a new technique and wholly naturalistic floral motifs.

Weaving Techniques (2)

Rugs are woven via the three-yarn system (weft, warp, knot) in rows created by tying ‘knots’ (ilme) of such materials as silk and wool around each pair of ‘warp’ yarns and compressed via transverse ‘wefts’ at each knot row. The rug is then completed by cutting at the same height with a pile surface.

In the production of rugs and flat weavings, warp yarns form the main frame of the rug and cotton yarn is preferred due to its higher number of layers and twists. wefts yarns used to compress the knots are relatively less durable and twisted than warp yarns.

The raw material of hand-woven rugs and flat weavings is traditionally animal (wool, silk, felt, etc.) or plant (cotton, hemp, etc.) textile fibres and the most commonly used fibre is fleece wool obtained from sheep.

As an experience and rare weaving material, silk was used in Ottoman Palace Rugs in history of the Turkish Carpet Art (2). Today, silk is used in only a few centres producing Hereke and Hereke-type rugs (4). 

knots (ilme) forms the pile surface of the rug. There are two types of knots, namely the Turkish knot (double knot) and Persian knot (single knot).

The Turkish knot is a knot form specific to Turkish rugs. All Anatolian rugs are woven in the Turkish knot except for rugs of Isparta and some other areas. This knot is suitable more for geometric patterns. Therefore, Turkish rugs are characteristically in geometric patterns.

Rug Quality (5)

Rug quality is measured with the number of knots tied in 10x10 cm. Secondary elements indicating rug quality are pile height, dye and pattern.

Pile height varies with different areas. Madder is always the dye of choice.

Traditional elements in the pattern increase the value of a rug. Each village, each town has a distinct pattern reflecting its traditional characteristics. Patterns stem from the customs and traditions of the area, its natural attractions and religious sentiments. They are handed down from father to son.

Centres

Settlements around Uşak, Konya, Kayseri, Karaman Taşkale, Taşpinar, Aksaray, Çanakkale, Isparta, Selçuk (Izmir) Yağcibedir and Malatya, Sivas are important centres of production.

Among the rugs produced,
Konya Yükselen, Sizma, Ladik, Karaman, Kula, Döşemealti, Sivas and Çanakkale rugs are significant with examples woven with natural dyes,

while Isparta, Sille, Kayseri and some Kirşehir products are distinguished with the use of cotton yarns. Isparta and Sille rugs are known for their florally ornamented patterns.





see...

 

 

    Kapat
 

(1) Turkish Carpet Art and it's historial progress, see  
     İ.Öztürk,
Dokumaya giriş/ Halı Düz Dokumalar ve Dokuma Kumaşların Üretim Teknikleri, İzmir 2007
     F.Tekçe,
Pazırık Altaylarında bir Halının Öyküsü, levent Matbaacılık, Ankara 1993
     F.Sümer, Anadolu'daki Türk Halıcılığına Dair En Eski Tarihi Kayıtlar, Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları, S.32, İstanbul 1984
     N.Diyarbekirli,
Pazırık Halısı, Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları, İstanbul 1984
     N.Diyarbekirli,
İlk Türk Halısı,I.Uluslarası T.Folklor Kongresi, Ankara, 1973
     Ş.Yetkin,
Türk Halı Sanatı, İstanbul 1974
     Kazım Dirik,
Türk Halıcılığı, İstanbul 1938H.Ö. Barışta, T.C Dönemi Halk Plastik Sanatları, Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ankara 2005
     N.Kırzıoğlu,
Altaylar’dan Tunaboyu’na Türk Dünyasında Ortak Motifler,
     G.Öney,
Anadolu Selçuklu ve Beylikler Dönemi Türk Halı Sanatı,BBBderg.Y10 S41
     O.Aslanapa-Y.Durul, Selçuklu Halıları, İstanbul 1973
     O.Aslanapa,
Türk sanatı, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Halıları,
     O.Aslanapa, 17. yy'da Türk Halı Sanatının Gelişmesi, Erdem AKM Yayınları,S.28, Ankara 1999 
     O.Aslanapa,
Türk Halı Sanatının Bin Yılı, Eren Yayıncılık, İstanbul 1987
     B.Acar, Halı Hazinelerimiz, İlgi, Y.7, S.41,1972
     B.Acar, Vakıflar Gn. Md.lüğü Halı Galerisi, İstanbul 1973
    
B.Deniz,
Geçmişten Günümüze Halıcılık, Bilim Birlik Başarı Dergisi Y.10 S.40
     B.Deniz,
Osmanlı Devri Anadolu-Türk Halıları, Bilim Birlik Başarı Y.10 S.42
     K.Erdmann,
Der Turkische Teppich Des 15.Jahrhunderst / 15.yy Türk Halısı, İÜ Yayını, İstanbul 1960
     R. Karadağ- E.Dölen,
Reexamination of Turkey red; Annali di Chimica, İtalya, 2007     
     İ.Öztürk,
Halıcılık Örneğinde Yöresel El Dokumalarının Araştırılmasında Değerlendirme ölçütleri’ 
     Turizm Bakanlığı, Turkish Handwoven Carpets, Ankara 1988     
     J.W. Mackie, Rugs andTextiles, Turkish Art 1980
    
B. Bottanald,
The Revival Dyeing in TwoTraditional Weawing Areas of Anatolia Rug., Reviw, Vol.3 No.9, 1983
     H. Haack,
Oriental Rugs and Illustrated Guide, London 1960
     T.T.Rice,
Ancient Arts Of Central Asia, London, 1965
     E.D.Philips,
The Royal Hords, Nomad Peobles of Steppes, London , 1965     
 
(2) Weaving technique details, See.
      İ.Öztürk,
Dokumaya giriş/Halı Düz Dokumalar ve Dokuma Kumaşların Üretim Teknikleri, 2007
      Macide Gönül,
Eski Türk Halılarında Dokuma Tekniği ve Özellikleri, 2. Uluslararası El Sanatları Semp. Bildirileri, DEÜ, İzmir 1982

(
3) For more information Crown Carpets, See.
     E.Kühnel-J.Bellinger,The Textile Museum, Cataloque Raisonne, Cairiene Rugs and Others   Technically Related 15 th Century 17 th Century, Washington 1957
     K.Erdmann,
Neure Untersuchungen Zur Frage Der Kairener Teppiche, Ars Orientalis IV 1961
     Ş.Yetkin,
Osmanlı Saray Halılarında Yeni Örnekler, Sanat Tarihi Yıllığı VII, 1976

(4) For more information on silk carpets, see.
     T.Altınbaş, Doğal İpekten El Dokusu Halı Yapımı ve İhraç Edilen İpek Halıların Teknik Özellikleri ile Üretim Koşulları Üzerinde Araştırmalar, Ankara 1979

(5) Qualities of carpets of certain carpet centers, see.

      G.Işıksaçan, Batı Anadolu’nun Başlıca Halı Merkezlerinde İmal Edilen Halıların Desen ve  Kaliteleri Üzerine Araştırmalar, İzmir,1964
    
Türk Standartları Enstitüsü El Dokusu Türk Halıları, Ankara 1967
     N.Görgünay,
Doğu Halılarının Kalite ve Desenleri, Tarım, Orman ve Köy İşleri Bakanlığı, Ankara 1984

(6) For more information, see..
     İ.Öztürk, Koruma Kültürü ve Geleneksel Tekstillerin Korunması-Onarımı, Morfil, Akademik dizi2, İzmir 2007
      E. ANMAÇ- G.KARAVAR,Restorasyon ve Konservasyon Öncesi El Dokuması Halıların Teknik Analizi ve İşlem Aşamaları”,  III. Ulusal Türk Dokumalarına Yaklaşım ve Sorunları Sempozyum Bildirileri, Konya 2000
      Öznur AYDIN, “Halının Onarım ve Restorasyonu” Kültür ve Sanat Dergisi Türkiye İş Bankası, Sayı:36, Aralık 1997
         Öznur AYDIN, Onarım, Onarımda Kullanılan Araç, Gereçler ve Boyanacak, Onarılacak Halı ve kilimlerin İşlem Aşamaları”, Ekonomik ve Teknik Standart Dergisi, Y.33, S. 390, 1994 
       “Halı Tamirle 200 Sene Daha Yaşar” Röportaj: Perihan YAZICI, Art Decor, S.13, 1991

     “Woven Legends Restoration”, Woven Legends Restoration, Ege Serbest Bölge Kurucu ve İşleticisi A.Ş.Yayını, S. 19, İzmir 2002

 
     
 
 
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