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EDGING EMBROIDERY

Edging embroidery (oya) is one of the most important examples of both our culture and our handicrafts. Edging embroidery was born out of the union of floral embroidery and the art of knitting. Used both as an element of ornamentation and as a means of communication via its messages, edging embroidery is a type of lacing produced with a ‘knitting’ technique.

Also defined as forms of braid border or knot lacing, works made in various knots or attached to knots by tools such as needles, weaver’s shuttles, awls and hair-pins and by using auxiliary objects such as silk, cotton, spangles and beads are referred to as ‘edging embroidery’.

Edging embroidery is a form of decoration (bezeme) and as a term, it was referred to by Turks in the 11th Century as ‘ev bezendi’, by Memluk Turks as ‘Oyu’ and by Kyrgyz Turks as ‘Oyuma’. This term cannot be directly translated in other languages.

Edging embroidery can be considered under various headings according to the tools, materials, techniques, areas of use, composition and type of decoration as follows:

1-Tools   
1.1. Point Lace
1.2. Crochet-Needle Embroidery
1.3. Shuttle Embroidery
1.4. Hairpin Embroidery
1.5. Shaft Embroidery 

2-Materials 
2.1. Bead Embroidery
2.2. Spacer Embroidery
2.3. Cocoon Embroidery
2.4. Yarn Embroidery
2.5. Wax Embroidery
2.6. Cloth (fabric) Embroidery

3-Techniques
3.1. Embroidery with weaving technique
3.2. Embroidery with shuttle technique
3.3. Embroidery with crochet-needle technique
3.4. Embroidery with hairpin technique
3.5. Embroidery with needle technique

4-Area of use
4.1. Yemani (kerchief) Embroidery
4.2. Hair Band Embroidery
4.3. Linen Embroidery
4.4. Handkerchief Embroidery
4.5. Purse Embroidery
4.6. Mevlit (Islamic memorial service) Scarf Embroidery

5-Composition
5.1. Main motif repeated
5.2. Main and side motifs repeated
5.3. Uninterrupted (line) repetition

5.4. Patterns of motifs

 

6-Decoration
6.1. Geometric Decoration
6.2. Floral Decoration
6.3. Abstract Symbolic Decoration
6.4. Figure Decoration
6.5. Object Decoration

Edging embroidery is performed in almost all regions of Anatolia with varying yarns, motifs, colours and areas of use. Also embracing its function as a means of communication for traditional Anatolian culture, edging embroidery has also taken its place in mani (short poetry), poetry, folk tales and folk literature.

Names given to works of embroidery from the Ottoman times to today are quite interesting as they reflect the creativity, imagination and sense of humour of Turkish people: Çarkı felek (wheel of fortune), çakır dikeni (spike of the goshawk), coşturan (exciting), kütüle, nardane, tavşan topuğu (rabbit’s heel), halay (a folk dance), altmış akıl (sixty minds), yetmiş fikir (seventy ideas), kolkola kızlar (girls arm-in-arm), etc.

One of the most important and interesting examples of traditional Turkish culture from the Ottoman times to today, edging embroidery is still used as a means of communication via messages concealed in motifs, colours, subject-matters and meanings.


see...

    Kapat
 

    Taciser Onuk, Osmanlı Süsleme Sanatı, (İşleme-Örgü-Oya), Osmanlı Kültür ve Sanat, Ankara 1999
    H.Örçün Barışta, ‘T.C Dönemi Halk Plastik Sanatları’ Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ankara 2005
    H.Ö. Barışta,XX yy Türk Oyalarında Seçilen Belli Başlı Konular, Gözlenen Estetik Değerler ve Plastik Özellikler, Ankara 1985
     K.Özbel,El Sanatları II,Oya ve Oya çeşitleri, Ank. 1948
     C.Ergenekon-F.Nur Başaran, Oyaların El Dokumalarında Değerlendirilmesi. DEÜ Geleneksel Türk El Sanatlarının Sanatsal, Tasarımsal ve Ekonomik Boyutu Sempozyum Bildirileri, İzmir 1999 
     H.Ö.Barışta, Çiçek Oyaları, P Sanat ve Kültür 1999 S13 
     G.Erbek, Erkek Oyaları,I.Ulusal El Sanatları Sempozyum Bildirileri,DEÜ GSF Yayınları,İzmir 1984
     E.Önge,Ege Erkek Oyaları,sanatsal Mozaik 1997 S 21

Yörelere göre oyalar hk geniş bilgi için bkz.

    T.Onuk,Adana ve İçel Boncuk Oyaları,I.Türk Halk Kültürü Araştırma Sonuçları Sempozyum         Bildirileri,Kültür Bakanlığı, 1996
    E.Erkaplan,Tarsus ve Çevre Köylerinden Boncuk Oya Örnekleri,Dünden Bugüne,Tarsus Semp. Bildirileri, Berdan Tarih ve Kültür Varlıklarını Koruma Vakfı Yayınları,1998
    F.Coşkun,Tavşanlı Oyaları,II.UlusalEl  Sanatları Semp.Bildirileri,DEÜ GSF yay.İzmir,1984
    T.Özbağı,Emirdağ ve Birkaç Çevre Köyünden Derlenen Bazı Oyalar,Emirdağ Köylere Hizmet Götürme Birliği Yay.No2,1995
    T.Özbağı,Elazığ İğne Oyalarından Bir Derleme, V.Uluslararası Türk Halk Kültürü Kogresi Maddi Kültür Seksiyonu Bildirileri,Kültür Bakanlığı,Ank.1997
    A.Meriç, Malatya İğne Oyaları,Kültür ve Sanat,T.İş Bankası yay.1992
    N.Ülger,Ayaş Tığ Oyalarından Örnekler,Ayaş ve ÇevresiKültür Sanat araştırmaları Sempozyum Bildirileri, Berdan Tarih Kültür Varlıklarını Koruma Vakfı Yayınları,1998

 
     
 
 
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