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Flat Weavings

In Turkish weaving art, napless and knotless weavings like rug, light rug (cicim), zili, sumak which are made by depending upon two or more yarn groups, are called 'flat woven rug' or, in public expression, shortly 'rug'.

Flat woven rugs show variations among each other like
rug,
cicim,
zili (sili), s
umak (verneh) in technical terms.

But, each one of the flat woven rugs is called 'rug' regardless of their technical features.

Each one of these weavings has its own weaving technique, ornamentation features and types. Even their places of use are different form each other.

Back and front sides of the weaving at weavings like cicim, zili and sumak are not flat as in the rug.

In Anatolia, flat woven rugs are woven with edgers, timber workbenches called tripod and jigger loom.
Yarns stretched vertically on benches are usually referred to as warp, yarns sewn sideways as weft. Weft types are also called pattern yarn as they constitute the pattern.

'Kirkit' is used to clench weft and pattern yarns during the weaving.

The quality of flat woven rugs is measured differently among the public.
The numbers of weft and wrap yarns,
the kg weight of weft and wrap yarn,
the kg weight of rug after woven indicate the quality.

On the other hand, whether yarns are of wool or cotton affects the quality. Throughout Anatolia, samples woven in cotton are not to the liking of people. The weaving made by cotton is called 'çaput (rag) weaving'.

Patterns used in flat woven rugs are richer but more complicated compared to those of carpets.

A free processing technique is employed in flat woven carpets. The weaver can sometimes add one or more of rug, zili, cicim or sumak techniques between the weaving to enrich the pattern. If the weaver wishes, he can apply these techniques to the same sample in bands. Yet more, during the weaving, the weaver can place strands, or colourful yarns and wool pieces.

Every community has its own pattern and these are named according to the specific community.
But, these patterns are applied upon stylization. Mostly plant patterns, human and animal depictions, symbols attached to traditions are woven. (1) (see also, Rug motifs).
Most of them carry traces of the Central Asia Turkish traditions.

History:

According to some sources, flat woven rugs used to be made in Anatolia before Turks’ arrival in Anatolia. The earliest flat weaving sample in Anatolia before Turks, dated 2300 BC, is known as the queen’s cloak, found in Troy. However, its whereabouts today are not known (2).

Woven pieces found also in Gordion excavations and regarded as the products of Phrygians in the VII Century BC were found to be woven in a similar technique to that in today’s woven covers (3). A ground cover is also mentioned in Dorak excavations.

When Turks arrived in Anatolia, they had a broad weaving culture based on the weaving culture in Central Asia. The samples, which survived until today, indicate that they preserved this tradition here and settlements like Konya, Kayseri, Sivas and Aksaray were famous centres with their weavings in Seljuk era (4).

Ottoman era flat woven rugs maintained the Seljuk era traditions in terms of motif and schema. While most of these motifs carry the same character with the motifs used in the periods of Seljuk and Beyliks, Central Asian Turkish traditions and mythology are dominant in certain examples. Ornaments of the Ottoman era are seen in most of these motifs. 

Flat woven samples of the Ottoman period that survived until today are in the İstanbul Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts, Vakıflar Museum of Carpets and Rugs, Cairo National Museum, and Ipar Muvezeti Museum in Hungary.

The motifs of the XV and XVI Century Early period Ottoman carpets were also transferred to the rugs.

Today, the samples known as bindallı rug by the public are still woven to this day. In this period, the Palace had its own craftsmen to design custom patterns and weave rugs. But contrary to the traditional ilikli rug (with buttonholes) technique woven by the public, mostly iliksiz rug (without buttonholes) was preferred in the Palace and their motifs are very different from those of traditional rugs.

A group sample where buttonholes are closed with single or double interlocking is referred to as 'Palace rugs', since their techniques and ornaments remind the Palace style (5).

While rugs had previously been woven upon need, the use of covers and rugs increased especially after the people involved in practicing transhumance began to settle down in XVII Century.

In the XVIII and XIX Centuries, mostly seccade (prayer rug), ground cover, tapestry, pillow, carpetbag, sack and bag kinds are seen. The Ottoman era is the period when flat woven covers were best known. Contrary to Palace rugs, samples of this era woven in ilikli rug (with buttonhole) or cicim, zili, sumak technique carried the features of the community where they were woven (6).

These rugs that were woven almost in every central place in the Ottoman period are the most prominent of the flat woven rugs, which are woven in Anatolia today.

 see...

 

    Kapat
 

Source:Bekir Deniz, Osmanlı Dönemi Düz Dokuma Yaygıları, Osmanlı Kültür ve Sanat, Ankara 1999
     Bekir Deniz,
Türk Dünyasında Halı Ve Düz Dokuma Yaygılar
, AKM Yayınları, Ankara 2000
     B.Acar,
Kilim Ve Düz Dokuma Yaygılar
, İstanbul 1975   
     B.Acar,
Türk Düz Dokuma Yaygıları
, İstanbul, 1982  
     M.Gönül,
Türk Halı ve Kilimlerinin Teknik Hususiyetleri, Türk Etnografya Dergisi, S.2 1957

     N.Özgül, El Sanatları Yönünden Halı Kilimde iplik ve Boya, DEÜ GSF Yayını, İzmir 1984Ş.

     Öznur Aydın, Günümüz Türk Kilimciliği, DEÜ GSF Dergisi,  S.8-9, 1994
    
Yetkin,
Zwei Turkish Kilims, Beitrage Zur Kunstgeschichte
,Asiens, İstanbul 1963
     İsmail Öztürk ‘
Dokumaya giriş/ Halı Düz Dokumalar ve Dokuma Kumaşların Üretim Teknikleri’
, İzmir 2007
     İsmail Öztürk, ‘
Halıcılık Örneğinde Yöresel El Dokumalarının Araştırılmasında Değerlendirme ölçütleri’

     Kenan Özbel,
Anadolu kilimleri
, El Sanatları Klavuz Kitaplar,9, Halk Evleri Yayını
     H.Ö. Barışta,‘
T.C Dönemi Halk Plastik Sanatları’,
Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ankara 2005
     F.Kayıpmaz-N.Kayıpmaz,
Geçmişten Günümüze Anadolu Kilimleri
, Standart, Ekonomik Ve Teknik Dergi, Y.35,S.409, 1996
     Ş.Yetkin,
Zwei Turkish Kilims, Beitrage Zur Kunstgeschichte
,Asiens, İstanbul 1963
     Ş.Yetkin,
İstanbul’da Hekimoğlu Alipaşa Camii’nden Hayvan Figürlü bir Türk Kilimi, Vakıflar Dergisi, S.IX Ankara 1971


(1) About patterys and names .
      B.Karamağaralı, Türk Halı Sanatındaki Motiflerin Yorumu Üzerine, Arış, Y.1,S.3,1997
     G.Erbek,
Anadolu Motifleri Sergisi,
Sergi Kataloğu, İzmir    
      İ.Birol-Ç.Derman,
Türk Tezyini Sanatlarında Motifler/Motifs İn Turkish Decorative Arts
,  Kubbealtı Kültür Ve Sanat Vakfı Yayını İstanbul 1991
     M.Önder,
Anadolu'da Kilimler'de Konuşur
, Kültür ve Sanat dergisi, T.İş Bankası Yayını,Y.3, S.11, 1991
     N.Görgünay,
Altaylar'dan Tuna Boyu'na Türk Dünyasında Ortak Motifler,
Türksoy Yayınları, Ankara 1995
     S.Babaoğlu,
Türk Kültürünün Işığında Halı-Kilim-Cicimlerdeki İmler
, IV.Uluslararasıtürk Halk Kültürü Kongresi, Ankara 1992
     Y.Durul,
Yörük Kilimleri Niğde Yöresi
, İstanbul 1977
     Y.Durul, Anadolu Kilimlerinden Örnekler,İstanbul,1985
     Y.Durul, Türk Kilim Motifleri, Ankara 1987

(2) Y.Durul, Yörük Kilimleri
, Niğde Yöresi, İstanbul 1977

(3) About Gordion weavings ve Dorak finds, See.

     B.Acar,
Kilim, Cicim, Zili, Sumak, s.118,dipnot.4

(4) For
 old sources regarding Seljuk and Anatolian Turkish carpets, see.  
     O.Aslanapa-Y.Durul,
Selçuklu Halıları,
İstanbul 1973
     Ş.Yetkin,
Türk Halı Sanatı,
İstanbul 1974
     F.Sümer,
Anadolu’daki Türk halıcılığına Dair En Eski Tarihi Kayıtlar,
Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları, Türk Halıları Özel Sayısı, S.34, 1984
     R.Genç,
Kaşgarlı Mahmut’a Göre XI.yy.da Türklerde Dokuma ve Yaygı İşleri/ Turkish Weawing Works in 11th Century According to Kaşgarlı Mahmud
, Arış, AKM Yayını,S.3, 1997

(5) A.Ersoy, Osmanlı Saray Kilimleri
, İlgi, S.61, İstanbul 1990
     Ş.Yetkin,
Divriği Ulu Camii’nde Bulunan Osmanlı Saray Sanatı Uslubundaki Kilimler
, Belleten, C. XLII
     Ş.Yetkin,
Türk Kilim Sanatında Yeni Bir Grup, Saray Kilimleri,
Belleten, XXXV, Ankara 1971
     Ş.Yetkin,
Osmanlı Saray Sanatı Uslubundaki Kilimlerden İki Yeni Örnek, Vakıflar Dergisi, C.13, Ankara 1981

(6) See for more information local weaving    
     Ayşen Akdoğan,
Doğu Yöresi Kilimleri, Sanat Dünyamız,S.35 İstanbul 1986
     A.Topbaş,
Afyon Karahisar ve Yöresi Kilimleri
, Kültür ve Sanat dergisi, S.21, 1994
     A.Soysaldı
, Düden Köyü Cami Yanışlı Kilimleri
, Kayseri 1996
     Bekir Deniz,
Yöresel Özellikleriyle Yozgat Kilimleri
, Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi Dergisi, S.5, İzmir 1990
     Bekir Deniz,
Yuntdağ Yöresi Düz Dokuma Yaygıları,
Kültür Bakanlığı, Ankara 1992
     Bekir Deniz,
Ayvacık(Çanakkale) Yöresi Düz Dokuma Yaygıları (Kilim, Cicim, Zili),
Ankara 1998 B.Acar, Kilim ve düz Dokuma Yaygılar, İstanbul 1975
     Bekir Deniz,
Karadeniz Bölgesinde İlginç Bir Dokuma Çeşidi, Dasdar
, Sanat Tarihi Dergisi, S.I, İzmir 1982
     Bekir Deniz, 
Yöre Özellikleriyle Yozgat Kilimleri
, Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi dergisi, EÜ Ed. Fak Yayını,İzmir, 1990
     B. Deniz-H.Ürer,
Selçuk (İzmir) Civarında Yaşayan Tekeli Yörüklerinde Halı ve Düz Dokuma Yaygılar
, Erdem, C.10, Ankara 1999
     Emin Kuzucular,
Şarkışla'da Kilim ve Kilimcilik
, Sivas Folkloru, S.48,Sivas 1977
     F.Kayıpmaz,
İsparta Ve Çevresi Yörük Kilimleri
,Türkiyemiz, Akbank Yay. Y.23,S.69, 1993
     G.Parlar,
Emirdağ Kilimlerinde Renk, Motif ve Kompozisyon Özellikleri,
Kültür ve Sanat Dergisi, S.21, 1994
     İ.Öztürk-Ö.Aydın,
Karatepe Kilimciliği
, Kültür Ve Sanat Dergisi, T.İş Bankası Yayını, Y.4, S.13,1992
     
K.Şenol, Bardız’da Kilimcilik
, Türk Folklor Araştırmaları, S.6,1960
    
Musa Seyirci, Sandıklı-Arızlı Köyünde Dokunan Hayat Ağaçlı Kilimler
, Kültür ve Sanat,S.30, Ankara 1996
     M.Z.Kuşoğlu,
Antep Kilimleri,
İlgi, Y.25, S.64, 1991
     M.Seyirci,
Bahşiş Yörükleri Ve Dokumaları,
Kültür Ve Sanat Dergisi, T.İş Bankası Yayını, S.33,1997
     N.Görgünay Kırzıoğlu,
Eşme Kilimleri
, AKM Yayınları, Ankara 1994
     
N.Say,
Niğde Bor İlçesi Bekdik Kilimleri
, 1999  
     N.Demir-M.Yerli,
Ordu Yöresi Çepni Kilimleri
, Erdem, AKM Yayını Halı Özel Sayısı, C.10, S. 28, Ankara 1999 
    Öznur Aydın,İzmir Bornova Çamiçi ve Eğridere Köylerindeki Cami ve Evlerde Bulunan Zili, Sumak Kontürlü Düz Dokuma Kilimler, Standart Dergisi, Y.34, S.398, 1995

    Recai Karahan, Kırşehir Kilimlerinin Dünü Bugünü, Türkiye'de El Sanatları Geleneği ve Çağdaş Sanatlar İçindeki Yeri Sempozyum Bildirileri, Ankara 1997
    S.Bayraktaroğlu, Eskişehir ve Çevresi Halı Kilim ve Düz Dokuma Yaygıları
, Vakıflar Dergisi, S.21, 1990
  
  S.Bayraktaroğlu, Anadolu'dan Balkanlar'a Uzanan bir Dokuma Sanatı, Şarköy Kilimleri,
T.İş Bankası, Kültür ve Sanat Dergisi,S.37, 1998   
    T.Onuk-F.Akpınarlı,
Güneydoğu Anadolu Karakeçili Türkmen Kilimleri,
Kayseri 1996
    Z.Lekesiz-S.Tombak,
Bardız Kilimleri, Halk Bilim, C.5, 1978

 
     
 
 
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